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‘Frankenstein’ nasceu durante umas férias medonhas


Trovões, relâmpagos e velas tremeluzentes. Parece coisa de uma história de terror - e para Mary Shelley, era. Ela escreveu sua obra-prima Frankenstein quando ela tinha apenas 19 anos, e as noites escuras e tempestuosas de verão que ajudaram a trazer sua monstruosa criação à vida eram quase tão dramáticas quanto o próprio romance.

Estranhamente, a saga de Frankenstein começou não com uma visão, mas com um vulcão. Em 1815, uma gigantesca erupção vulcânica no Monte Tambora, na Indonésia, sufocou o ar com cinzas e poeira. A erupção matou cerca de 100.000 pessoas em suas consequências imediatas, mas o número total de vítimas acabou sendo muito maior - agora é considerada a erupção de vulcão mais mortal da história.

No verão seguinte, a estação quente de cultivo nunca chegou. Em vez de sol, a maior parte da Europa estava coberta de névoa e até geada. As quebras de safra se espalharam pela Europa, Ásia e até América do Norte por três anos depois. Seguiram-se fomes, epidemias e revoltas políticas. Os historiadores estimam que pelo menos um milhão de pessoas morreram de fome após a erupção de Tambora, enquanto dezenas de milhões morreram de uma pandemia global de cólera que ela desencadeou.

Durante esses três anos de escuridão e fome, alguns dos maiores artistas da Europa criaram suas obras mais sombrias e duradouras. Mary Shelley estava entre eles - mas quando ela chegou ao Lago Genebra em maio de 1816, ela estava procurando férias, não inspiração literária. Infelizmente, o tempo estava tão horrível na Suíça que ela ficou presa dentro de casa quase o tempo todo.

Mary viajou com seu amante, o poeta Percy Bysshe Shelley, seu bebê de quatro meses e sua meia-irmã, Claire Clairmont. Na época, Claire estava grávida de um filho de Lord Byron, o poeta inovador cujos assuntos pessoais o tornaram uma das celebridades mais divisivas da Inglaterra. Mais recentemente, ele se divorciou de sua esposa e, segundo os boatos, continuou um caso com sua meia-irmã. Atormentado por fofocas e dívidas, ele decidiu deixar a Europa.

Após a partida de Byron, a obcecada Claire convenceu Mary e Percy a viajar para Genebra com ela. Poucos dias depois, Byron - claramente sem saber que Claire estaria lá - chegou na cidade. Mary, que fugiu com o marido casado quando tinha apenas 17 anos e foi posteriormente rejeitada por sua família intelectual, simpatizou com o poeta escandaloso.

Percy e Byron, que eram fãs do trabalho um do outro, logo formaram uma amizade intensa. Eles abandonaram seus outros planos de viagem e alugaram propriedades próximas ao longo do Lago Genebra. Durante as noites frias, eles se reuniram com o resto do grupo no Villa Diodati, a mansão imponente que Byron havia alugado para sua estadia com John Polidori, seu médico. Eles liam poesia, discutiam e conversavam até tarde da noite.

O tempo terrível os mantinha dentro de casa com mais frequência. Trovões e relâmpagos ecoaram pela villa e suas conversas se voltaram para um dos grandes debates do dia: se cadáveres humanos poderiam ser galvanizados ou reanimados após a morte. Mary, que se descreveu como “uma ouvinte devota, mas quase silenciosa”, sentou-se perto dos homens e absorveu cada palavra de suas especulações sobre os limites da medicina moderna.

Com o passar dos dias, os conflitos entre os veranistas começaram a ferver. Byron ficou irritado com as tentativas de Claire de encantá-lo. Mary teve que lutar contra os avanços sexuais de Polidori, que se tornara obcecado por ela. Percy estava deprimido. Quando três dias de chuva os prenderam dentro da villa, as tensões atingiram o ponto de ebulição.

Eles lidaram com a situação lendo histórias de terror e poemas mórbidos. Uma noite, enquanto se sentavam na escuridão à luz de velas, Byron deu a todos um desafio: escrever uma história de fantasmas que fosse melhor do que as que tinham acabado de ler. Inspirado por um conto de Byron, Polidori obedeceu imediatamente. Sua novela “O Vampiro”, publicada em 1819, é a primeira obra de ficção a incluir um herói sugador de sangue - que muitos acham que foi inspirado no próprio Byron.

Mary também queria escrever uma história, mas não conseguiu pousar em um assunto. “Eu era questionada todas as manhãs, e todas as manhãs eu era forçada a responder com uma negativa mortificante”, ela escreveu mais tarde. Mas uma noite sem dormir, enquanto trovões e relâmpagos ecoavam no lago, ela teve uma visão. “Eu vi o fantasma hediondo de um homem estendido”, escreveu ela, “e então, no funcionamento de algum motor potente, deu sinais de vida”.

Na manhã seguinte, ela poderia dizer sim quando lhe perguntassem se ela tinha uma história de fantasmas em mente. O livro dela, Frankenstein, ou o Modern Prometheus, incorporou o cenário misterioso da Villa Diodati e as conversas mórbidas dos poetas. A história que ela mais tarde chamou de “progênie hedionda” pergunta o que acontece quando os homens fingem que são deuses - inspirados, talvez, pela arrogância da empresa que ela mantinha na Suíça.

Embora ela não soubesse, o livro de Mary, publicado em 1818, iria revolucionar a literatura e a cultura popular. Mas a vida dos veranistas não terminou bem. Polidori suicidou-se em 1821. Percy Shelley morreu afogado durante uma tempestade em 1822, quando tinha apenas 29 anos. Byron tirou a filha que tinha com Claire, Allegra, de sua mãe e a mandou para um convento para ser educada; ela morreu lá em 1822 aos 5 anos de idade. Byron morreu em 1824 após contrair uma febre.

Do grupo, apenas Mary e Claire viveram além dos 50 anos. Mas o livro inspirado naquele verão assustador - e sua terrível história de vida após a morte - vive até hoje.

Acesse centenas de horas de vídeo histórico, sem comerciais, com o HISTORY Vault. Comece seu teste gratuito hoje.


Frankenstein

Frankenstein ou, The Modern Prometheus é um romance de 1818 escrito pela autora inglesa Mary Shelley. Frankenstein conta a história de Victor Frankenstein, um jovem cientista que cria uma criatura sapiente em um experimento científico não ortodoxo. Shelley começou a escrever a história quando tinha 18 anos, e a primeira edição foi publicada anonimamente em Londres em 1º de janeiro de 1818, quando ela tinha 20 anos. Seu nome apareceu pela primeira vez na segunda edição, publicada em Paris em 1821.

Shelley viajou pela Europa em 1815 ao longo do rio Reno na Alemanha, parando em Gernsheim, a 17 quilômetros (11 milhas) de distância do Castelo de Frankenstein, onde dois séculos antes, um alquimista se engajou em experimentos. [2] [3] [4] Ela então viajou para a região de Genebra, Suíça, onde grande parte da história se passa. Galvanismo e idéias ocultas foram tópicos de conversa entre seus companheiros, particularmente seu amante e futuro marido Percy B. Shelley. Em 1816, Mary, Percy e Lord Byron fizeram uma competição para ver quem poderia escrever a melhor história de terror. [5] Depois de pensar por dias, Shelley foi inspirada a escrever Frankenstein depois de imaginar um cientista que criou a vida e ficou horrorizado com o que havia feito. [6]

No entanto Frankenstein é infundido com elementos do romance gótico e do movimento romântico, Brian Aldiss argumentou que deveria ser considerada a primeira verdadeira história de ficção científica. Em contraste com histórias anteriores com elementos fantásticos semelhantes aos da ficção científica posterior, Aldiss afirma que o personagem central "toma uma decisão deliberada" e "se volta para experimentos modernos em laboratório" para alcançar resultados fantásticos. [7] O romance teve uma influência considerável na literatura e na cultura popular e gerou um gênero completo de histórias de terror, filmes e peças de teatro.

Desde a publicação do romance, o sobrenome "Frankenstein" tem sido freqüentemente usado para se referir erroneamente ao monstro, ao invés de seu criador / pai. [8] [9] [10]


Ano sem verão

O historiador John Post chamou as consequências & # 8220 de a última grande crise de subsistência no mundo ocidental & # 8221. As temperaturas médias globais caíram cerca de 0,4 a 0,7 ° C. A terra ficou inundada ou seca.

Propaganda

Na distante Virgínia, onde nevou em junho de 1816 e as colheitas fracassaram, Thomas Jefferson lamentou & # 8220 o ano mais extraordinário de seca e frio & # 8221 que a América já viu. Em Bengala, três anos de céus envoltos por um véu de sulfato impediram as monções e levaram não apenas à fome em massa, mas também à disseminação de uma nova cólera, desencadeando uma epidemia global.

E na Suíça, para onde o escândalo Byron fugiu para passar o verão encharcado com sua nova alma gêmea poética Percy Shelley, a amante adolescente de Shelley e # 8217 Mary Godwin e Mary & # 8217s meia-irmã Claire Clairmont, a chuva caiu em 130 dos 153 dias entre abril e Agosto.

No alvorecer da revolução industrial da Europa & # 8217, um desastre puramente natural - possivelmente a erupção vulcânica mais extrema desde o evento Hatepe na Nova Zelândia por volta de 185 DC -, assim, convulsionou sociedades e estados em todo o mundo.

Dois séculos depois, em um mundo de preocupações e temores sobre a responsabilidade humana pelas mudanças climáticas, as consequências culturais daquele & # 8220 ano sem verão & # 8221 ainda dão cor às histórias que contamos.

Como Byron & # 8217s brincam à parte sobre as dicas de Castelreagh, para mentes pós-Iluminismo no início do século 19, não era mais fácil suportar calamidades climáticas como a simples vontade de Deus. Nos Estados Unidos, os cultos penitentes se espalharam à medida que fazendeiros arruinados migraram dos solos frios e áridos da Nova Inglaterra.

Para os europeus de pensamento livre, como a tripulação de Bryon-Shelley, esses meses sombrios vieram rapidamente na esteira da derrota de Napoleão e # 8217 e o colapso das esperanças de mudança. Por mais que se apoiasse na coincidência e na contingência, a colisão de catástrofes sociais e naturais deu origem a longas e escuras noites da alma romântica.


Revisão de Literatura de Dissertação - Bibliografias de Estudos de Gênero - no estilo de Harvard

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& quotFridging & quot, um dos tropos mais nocivos da narrativa, explicou

Em texto: (Romano e Abad-Stantos, 2018)

Sua bibliografia: Romano, A. e Abad-Stantos, A., 2018. "Fridging", um dos tropos mais nocivos da narrativa, explicou. [online] Vox. Disponível em: & lthttps: //www.vox.com/2018/5/24/17384064/deadpool-vanessa-fridging-women-refrigerators-comics-trope> [Acessado em 31 de agosto de 2019].

Singer, M.

& quotBlack Skins & quot and White Masks: Comics and the Secret of Race

2002 - Revisão Afro-Americana

Em texto: (Singer, 2002)

Sua bibliografia: Singer, M., 2002. "Black Skins" e White Masks: Comic Books and the Secret of Race. Revisão afro-americana, 36 (1), p.107.

Stableford, B.

Estratégias narrativas em ficção científica

2009 - Leitura de Ficção Científica

Em texto: (Stableford, 2009)

Sua bibliografia: Stableford, B., 2009. Narrative Strategies in Science Fiction. Lendo Ficção Científica,.

Steiner, C.

Os títulos da sequência do avatar foram lançados e, honestamente, estou tão cansado

2018 - The Mary Sue

Em texto: (Steiner, 2018)

Sua bibliografia: Steiner, C., 2018. Os títulos da sequência do avatar foram lançados e, honestamente, estou tão cansado. [online] The Mary Sue. Disponível em: & lthttps: //www.themarysue.com/avatar-sequel-titles/> [Acessado em 1 de setembro de 2019].

Tapley, K.

Ouça: Kevin Feige reflete sobre o jogador do Oscar ‘Pantera Negra’ e 10 anos de Marvel Studios

Em texto: (Tapley, 2018)

Sua bibliografia: Tapley, K., 2018. Ouça: Kevin Feige reflete sobre o jogador do Oscar ‘Pantera Negra’ e 10 anos de Marvel Studios. [online] Variedade. Disponível em: & lthttps: //variety.com/2018/film/podcasts/playback-podcast-kevin-feige-black-panther-marvel-studios-1203095749> [Acessado em 31 de agosto de 2019].

Tapley, K.

Oscar: "Pantera Negra" se torna o primeiro filme de super-herói a ser nomeado para melhor filme

Em texto: (Tapley, 2019)

Sua bibliografia: Tapley, K., 2019. Oscar: "Pantera Negra" se torna o primeiro filme de super-herói a ser nomeado para melhor filme. [online] Variedade. Disponível em: & lthttps: //variety.com/2019/film/in-contention/oscars-black-panther-becomes-first-superhero-movie-ever-nominated-for-best-picture-1203113451/> [Acessado em 31 de agosto 2019].

Mary Shelley - autora de Frankenstein

2019 - Biblioteca Britânica

Em texto: (Mary Shelley - Autora de Frankenstein, 2019)

Sua bibliografia: A Biblioteca Britânica. 2019. Mary Shelley - autora de Frankenstein. [online] Disponível em: & lthttps: //www.bl.uk/people/mary-shelley> [Acessado em 17 de agosto de 2019].

Lista completa do National Film Registry

2018 - Congress.gov

Em texto: (Lista completa do National Film Registry, 2018)

Sua bibliografia: A Biblioteca do Congresso. 2018. Lista completa do National Film Registry. [online] Disponível em: & lthttps: //www.loc.gov/programs/national-film-preservation-board/film-registry/complete-national-film-registry-listing/> [Acessado em 17 de agosto de 2019].

Glossário

A Universidade de Chicago

Em texto: (Glossário, n.d.)

Sua bibliografia: A Universidade de Chicago. WL. Glossário. [online] Disponível em: & lthttps: //csmt.uchicago.edu/glossary2004/affect.htm> [Acessado em 17 de agosto de 2019].

Womack, Y.

Afrofuturismo

2013 - Chicago Review Press - Chicago, IL

Em texto: (Womack, 2013)

Sua bibliografia: Womack, Y., 2013. Afrofuturismo. Chicago, IL: Chicago Review Press.

Yaszek, L.

Afrofuturismo, Ficção Científica e História do Futuro

2006 - Socialismo e Democracia

Em texto: (Yaszek, 2006)

Sua bibliografia: Yaszek, L., 2006. Afrofuturismo, Ficção Científica e História do Futuro. Socialismo e Democracia, 20 (3), páginas 41-60.

Yuen, N.

Reel Inequality: Hollywood Actors and Racism

2016 - Rutgers University Press

Em texto: (Yuen, 2016)

Sua bibliografia: Yuen, N., 2016. Reel Inequality: Hollywood Actors and Racism. Rutgers University Press.


Conteúdo

O romance original de Mary Shelley nunca dá um nome ao monstro, embora ao falar com seu criador, Victor Frankenstein, o monstro diga "Eu devo ser o teu Adão" (em referência ao primeiro homem criado na Bíblia). Frankenstein se refere à sua criação como "criatura", "demônio", "espectro", "o daemon", "desgraçado", "diabo", "coisa", "ser" e "ogro". [2] A criação de Frankenstein se referiu a si mesmo como um "monstro" pelo menos uma vez, assim como os residentes de um vilarejo que viram a criatura no final do romance.

Como na história de Shelley, o anonimato da criatura se tornou uma parte central das adaptações teatrais em Londres e Paris durante as décadas após a primeira aparição do romance. Em 1823, a própria Shelley assistiu a uma apresentação de Richard Brinsley Peake Presunção, a primeira adaptação teatral de seu romance. "O projeto de lei me divertiu extremamente, pois na lista de dramatis personae vinha _________, do sr. T. Cooke", escreveu ela a sua amiga Leigh Hunt. "Este modo sem nome de nomear o inominável é bastante bom." [3]

Dentro de uma década de publicação, o nome do criador - Frankenstein - foi usado para se referir à criatura, mas não se tornou firmemente estabelecido até muito mais tarde. A história foi adaptada para o palco em 1927 por Peggy Webling, [4] e Victor Frankenstein, de Webling, dá à criatura seu nome. No entanto, a criatura não tem nome na série de filmes da Universal estrelada por Boris Karloff durante os anos 1930, que foi amplamente baseada na peça de Webling. [5] O filme da Universal de 1931 tratou a identidade da criatura de maneira semelhante ao romance de Shelley: nos créditos iniciais, o personagem é referido apenas como "O Monstro" (o nome do ator é substituído por um ponto de interrogação, mas Karloff está listado nos créditos finais). [6] No entanto, a criatura logo se tornou mais conhecida no imaginário popular como "Frankenstein". Esse uso às vezes é considerado errôneo, mas alguns comentaristas de uso consideram o sentido monstruoso de "Frankenstein" bem estabelecido e não um erro. [7] [8]

A prática moderna varia um pouco. Por exemplo, em Frankenstein de Dean Koontz, publicado pela primeira vez em 2004, a criatura se chama "Deucalião", em homenagem ao personagem da mitologia grega, que é filho do titã Prometeu, uma referência ao título do romance original. Outro exemplo é o segundo episódio do Showtime's Penny Dreadful, que foi ao ar pela primeira vez em 2014, Victor Frankenstein considera brevemente nomear sua criação de "Adam", antes de decidir deixar o monstro "escolher seu próprio nome". Folheando um livro das obras de William Shakespeare, o monstro escolhe "Proteu" de Os Dois Cavalheiros de Verona. Mais tarde, é revelado que Proteus é realmente o segundo monstro que Frankenstein criou, com a primeira criação abandonada sendo chamada de "Caliban", de A tempestade, pelo ator de teatro que o acolheu e mais tarde, ao sair do teatro, batizou-se em homenagem ao poeta inglês John Clare. [9] Outro exemplo é uma tentativa de Randall Munroe de webcomic xkcd para fazer "Frankenstein" o nome canônico do monstro, publicando uma versão derivada curta que afirma diretamente que é. [10] Em O estranho caso da filha do alquimista , o romance de 2017 de Theodora Goss, a criatura se chama Adam. [11]

Victor Frankenstein constrói a criatura no sótão de sua pensão em Ingolstadt depois de descobrir um princípio científico que lhe permite criar vida a partir de matéria não viva. Frankenstein está enojado com sua criação, no entanto, e foge dela horrorizado. Assustado e sem saber de sua própria identidade, o monstro vagueia pela selva.

Ele encontra consolo ao lado de uma cabana remota habitada por um homem cego mais velho e seus dois filhos. Escutando, a criatura se familiariza com suas vidas e aprende a falar, tornando-se um indivíduo eloqüente, educado e bem-educado. Durante esse tempo, ele também encontra o diário de Frankenstein no bolso da jaqueta que encontrou no laboratório e descobre como ele foi criado. A criatura eventualmente se apresenta ao pai cego da família, que o trata com gentileza. Quando o resto da família retorna, porém, eles ficam com medo dele e o expulsam. Enfurecida, a criatura sente que a humanidade é sua inimiga e passa a odiar seu criador por tê-lo abandonado. No entanto, embora despreze Frankenstein, ele sai para encontrá-lo, acreditando que ele é a única pessoa que o ajudará. Em sua jornada, a criatura resgata uma menina de um rio, mas é baleada no ombro pelo pai da criança, acreditando que a criatura pretendia machucar seu filho. Enfurecido por este ato final de crueldade, a criatura jura vingança sobre a humanidade pelo sofrimento que lhe causou. Ele busca vingança contra seu criador, em particular por deixá-lo sozinho em um mundo onde ele é odiado. Usando as informações das anotações de Frankenstein, a criatura resolve encontrá-lo.

O monstro mata o irmão mais novo de Victor, William, ao saber da relação do menino com seu criador e faz parecer que Justine Moritz, uma jovem que vive com os Frankensteins, é a responsável. Quando Frankenstein se retira para os Alpes, o monstro se aproxima dele no cume, relata suas experiências e pede a seu criador que lhe construa uma companheira. Ele promete, em troca, desaparecer com sua companheira e nunca mais incomodar a humanidade novamente, mas ameaça destruir tudo que Frankenstein ama se ele falhar ou recusar. Frankenstein concorda e, eventualmente, constrói uma criatura feminina em uma ilha remota em Orkney, mas horrorizado com a possibilidade de criar uma raça de monstros, destrói a criatura feminina antes que ela esteja completa. Horrorizada e enfurecida, a criatura aparece imediatamente e faz uma última ameaça a Frankenstein: "Estarei com você na noite de núpcias."

After leaving his creator, the creature goes on to kill Victor's best friend, Henry Clerval, and later kills Frankenstein's bride, Elizabeth Lavenza, on their wedding night, whereupon Frankenstein's father dies of grief. With nothing left to live for but revenge, Frankenstein dedicates himself to destroying his creation, and the creature goads him into pursuing him north, through Scandinavia and into Russia, staying ahead of him the entire way.

As they reach the Arctic Circle and travel over the pack ice of the Arctic Ocean, Frankenstein, suffering from severe exhaustion and hypothermia, comes within a mile of the creature, but is separated from him when the ice he is traveling over splits. A ship exploring the region encounters the dying Frankenstein, who relates his story to the ship's captain, Robert Walton. Later, the monster boards the ship, but upon finding Frankenstein dead, is overcome by grief and pledges to incinerate himself at "the Northernmost extremity of the globe". He then departs, never to be seen again.

Shelley described Frankenstein's monster as an 8-foot-tall (2.4 m) creature of hideous contrasts:

His limbs were in proportion, and I had selected his features as beautiful. Bela! Great God! His yellow skin scarcely covered the work of muscles and arteries beneath his hair was of a lustrous black, and flowing his teeth of a pearly whiteness but these luxuriances only formed a more horrid contrast with his watery eyes, that seemed almost of the same colour as the dun-white sockets in which they were set, his shrivelled complexion and straight black lips.

A picture of the creature appeared in the 1831 edition. Early stage portrayals dressed him in a toga, shaded, along with the monster's skin, a pale blue. Throughout the 19th century, the monster's image remained variable according to the artist.

Portrayals in film Edit

The best-known image of Frankenstein's monster in popular culture derives from Boris Karloff's portrayal in the 1931 movie Frankenstein, in which he wore makeup applied and designed by Jack P. Pierce. [12] Universal Studios, which released the film, was quick to secure ownership of the copyright for the makeup format. Karloff played the monster in two more Universal films, Bride of Frankenstein e Son of Frankenstein Lon Chaney Jr. took over the part from Karloff in The Ghost of Frankenstein Bela Lugosi portrayed the role in Frankenstein Meets the Wolf Man and Glenn Strange played the monster in the last three Universal Studios films to feature the character – House of Frankenstein, House of Dracula, e Abbott and Costello Meet Frankenstein. But their makeup replicated the iconic look first worn by Karloff. In modern times the image of Karloff's face is owned by his daughter's company, Karloff Enterprises, secured for her in a lawsuit for which she was represented by attorney Bela G. Lugosi (Bela Lugosi's son), after which Universal replaced Karloff's features with Glenn Strange's in most of their marketing. The New York Times mistakenly ran a photograph of Strange for Karloff's obituary.

Since Karloff's portrayal, the creature almost always appears as a towering, undead-like figure, often with a flat-topped angular head and bolts on his neck to serve as electrical connectors or grotesque electrodes. He wears a dark, usually tattered, suit having shortened coat sleeves and thick, heavy boots, causing him to walk with an awkward, stiff-legged gait (as opposed to the novel, in which he is described as much more flexible than a human). The tone of his skin varies (although shades of green or gray are common), and his body appears stitched together at certain parts (such as around the neck and joints). This image has influenced the creation of other fictional characters, such as the Hulk. [13]

In the 1965 Toho film Frankenstein Conquers the World, the heart of Frankenstein’s Monster was transported from Germany to Hiroshima as World War II neared its end, only to be irradiated during the atomic bombing of the city, granting it miraculous regenerative capabilities. Over the ensuing 20 years, it grows into a complete human child, who then rapidly matures into a giant, 20 metre-tall man. After escaping a laboratory in the city, he is blamed for the crimes of the burrowing Kaiju Baragon, and the two monsters face off in a showdown that ends with Frankenstein victorious, though he falls into the depths of the Earth after the ground collapses beneath his feet.

In the 1973 TV miniseries Frankenstein: The True Story, a different approach was taken in depicting the monster: Michael Sarrazin appears as a strikingly handsome man who later degenerates into a grotesque monster due to a flaw in the creation process.

In the 1994 film Mary Shelley's Frankenstein, the creature is played by Robert De Niro in a nearer approach to the original source, except this version gives the creature balding grey hair and a body covered in bloody stitches. He is, as in the novel, motivated by pain and loneliness. In this version, Frankenstein gives the monster the brain of his mentor, Doctor Waldman, while his body is made from a man who killed Waldman while resisting a vaccination. The monster retains Waldman's "trace memories" that apparently help him quickly learn to speak and read.

In the 2004 film Van Helsing, the monster is shown in a modernized version of the Karloff design. He is 8 to 9 feet (240–270 cm) tall, has a square bald head, gruesome scars, and pale green skin. The electricity is emphasized with one electrified dome in the back of his head and another over his heart. It also has hydraulic pistons in its legs, essentially rendering the design as a steam-punk cyborg. Although not as eloquent as in the novel, this version of the creature is intelligent and relatively nonviolent.

In 2004, a TV miniseries adaptation of Frankenstein was made by Hallmark. Luke Goss plays The Creature. This adaptation more closely resembles the monster as described in the novel: intelligent and articulate, with flowing, dark hair and watery eyes.

The 2005 film Frankenstein Reborn portrays the Creature as a paraplegic man who tries to regain the ability to walk by having a computer chip implanted. Instead, the surgeon kills him and resurrects his corpse as a reanimated zombie creature.

The 2014 TV series Penny Dreadful also rejects the Karloff design in favour of Shelley's description. This version of the creature has the flowing dark hair described by Shelley, although he departs from her description by having pale grey skin and obvious scars along the right side of his face. Additionally, he is of average height, being even shorter than other characters in the series. In this series, the monster names himself "Caliban", after the character in William Shakespeare's The Tempest. In the series, Victor Frankenstein makes a second and third creature, each more indistinguishable from normal human beings.


Conteúdo

Mary Shelley's original novel never gives the monster a name, although when speaking to his creator, Victor Frankenstein, the monster does say "I ought to be thy Adam" (in reference to the first man created in the Bible). Frankenstein refers to his creation as "creature", "fiend", "spectre", "the dæmon", "wretch", "devil", "thing", "being", and "ogre". [2] Frankenstein's creation referred to himself as a "monster" at least once, as did the residents of a hamlet who saw the creature towards the end of the novel.

As in Shelley's story, the creature's namelessness became a central part of the stage adaptations in London and Paris during the decades after the novel's first appearance. In 1823, Shelley herself attended a performance of Richard Brinsley Peake's Presumption, the first successful stage adaptation of her novel. "The play bill amused me extremely, for in the list of dramatis personae came _________, by Mr T. Cooke," she wrote to her friend Leigh Hunt. "This nameless mode of naming the unnameable is rather good." [3]

Within a decade of publication, the name of the creator—Frankenstein—was used to refer to the creature, but it did not become firmly established until much later. The story was adapted for the stage in 1927 by Peggy Webling, [4] and Webling's Victor Frankenstein does give the creature his name. However, the creature has no name in the Universal film series starring Boris Karloff during the 1930s, which was largely based upon Webling's play. [5] The 1931 Universal film treated the creature's identity in a similar way as Shelley's novel: in the opening credits, the character is referred to merely as "The Monster" (the actor's name is replaced by a question mark, but Karloff is listed in the closing credits). [6] Nevertheless, the creature soon enough became best known in the popular imagination as "Frankenstein". This usage is sometimes considered erroneous, but some usage commentators regard the monster sense of "Frankenstein" as well-established and not an error. [7] [8]

Modern practice varies somewhat. For example, in Dean Koontz's Frankenstein, first published in 2004, the creature is named "Deucalion", after the character from Greek mythology, who is the son of the Titan Prometheus, a reference to the original novel's title. Another example is the second episode of Showtime's Penny Dreadful, which first aired in 2014 Victor Frankenstein briefly considers naming his creation "Adam", before deciding instead to let the monster "pick his own name". Thumbing through a book of the works of William Shakespeare, the monster chooses "Proteus" from The Two Gentlemen of Verona. It is later revealed that Proteus is actually the segundo monster Frankenstein has created, with the first, abandoned creation having been named "Caliban", from The Tempest, by the theatre actor who took him in and later, after leaving the theatre, named himself after the English poet John Clare. [9] Another example is an attempt by Randall Munroe of webcomic xkcd to make "Frankenstein" the canonical name of the monster, by publishing a short derivative version which directly states that it is. [10] In The Strange Case of the Alchemist's Daughter , the 2017 novel by Theodora Goss, the creature is named Adam. [11]

Victor Frankenstein builds the creature in the attic of his boarding house in Ingolstadt after discovering a scientific principle which allows him to create life from non-living matter. Frankenstein is disgusted by his creation, however, and flees from it in horror. Frightened, and unaware of his own identity, the monster wanders through the wilderness.

He finds solace beside a remote cottage inhabited by an older, blind man and his two children. Eavesdropping, the creature familiarizes himself with their lives and learns to speak, whereby he becomes an eloquent, educated, and well-mannered individual. During this time, he also finds Frankenstein's journal in the pocket of the jacket he found in the laboratory and learns how he was created. The creature eventually introduces himself to the family's blind father, who treats him with kindness. When the rest of the family returns, however, they are frightened of him and drive him away. Enraged, the creature feels that humankind is his enemy and begins to hate his creator for abandoning him. However, although he despises Frankenstein, he sets out to find him, believing that he is the only person who will help him. On his journey, the creature rescues a young girl from a river but is shot in the shoulder by the child's father, believing the creature intended to harm his child. Enraged by this final act of cruelty, the creature swears revenge on humankind for the suffering they have caused him. He seeks revenge against his creator in particular for leaving him alone in a world where he is hated. Using the information in Frankenstein's notes, the creature resolves to find him.

The monster kills Victor's younger brother William upon learning of the boy's relation to his creator and makes it appear as if Justine Moritz, a young woman who lives with the Frankensteins, is responsible. When Frankenstein retreats to the Alps, the monster approaches him at the summit, recounts his experiences, and asks his creator to build him a female mate. He promises, in return, to disappear with his mate and never trouble humankind again, but threatens to destroy everything Frankenstein holds dear should he fail or refuse. Frankenstein agrees, and eventually constructs a female creature on a remote island in Orkney, but aghast at the possibility of creating a race of monsters, destroys the female creature before it is complete. Horrified and enraged, the creature immediately appears, and gives Frankenstein a final threat: "I will be with you on your wedding night."

After leaving his creator, the creature goes on to kill Victor's best friend, Henry Clerval, and later kills Frankenstein's bride, Elizabeth Lavenza, on their wedding night, whereupon Frankenstein's father dies of grief. With nothing left to live for but revenge, Frankenstein dedicates himself to destroying his creation, and the creature goads him into pursuing him north, through Scandinavia and into Russia, staying ahead of him the entire way.

As they reach the Arctic Circle and travel over the pack ice of the Arctic Ocean, Frankenstein, suffering from severe exhaustion and hypothermia, comes within a mile of the creature, but is separated from him when the ice he is traveling over splits. A ship exploring the region encounters the dying Frankenstein, who relates his story to the ship's captain, Robert Walton. Later, the monster boards the ship, but upon finding Frankenstein dead, is overcome by grief and pledges to incinerate himself at "the Northernmost extremity of the globe". He then departs, never to be seen again.

Shelley described Frankenstein's monster as an 8-foot-tall (2.4 m) creature of hideous contrasts:

His limbs were in proportion, and I had selected his features as beautiful. Bela! Great God! His yellow skin scarcely covered the work of muscles and arteries beneath his hair was of a lustrous black, and flowing his teeth of a pearly whiteness but these luxuriances only formed a more horrid contrast with his watery eyes, that seemed almost of the same colour as the dun-white sockets in which they were set, his shrivelled complexion and straight black lips.

A picture of the creature appeared in the 1831 edition. Early stage portrayals dressed him in a toga, shaded, along with the monster's skin, a pale blue. Throughout the 19th century, the monster's image remained variable according to the artist.

Portrayals in film Edit

The best-known image of Frankenstein's monster in popular culture derives from Boris Karloff's portrayal in the 1931 movie Frankenstein, in which he wore makeup applied and designed by Jack P. Pierce. [12] Universal Studios, which released the film, was quick to secure ownership of the copyright for the makeup format. Karloff played the monster in two more Universal films, Bride of Frankenstein e Son of Frankenstein Lon Chaney Jr. took over the part from Karloff in The Ghost of Frankenstein Bela Lugosi portrayed the role in Frankenstein Meets the Wolf Man and Glenn Strange played the monster in the last three Universal Studios films to feature the character – House of Frankenstein, House of Dracula, e Abbott and Costello Meet Frankenstein. But their makeup replicated the iconic look first worn by Karloff. In modern times the image of Karloff's face is owned by his daughter's company, Karloff Enterprises, secured for her in a lawsuit for which she was represented by attorney Bela G. Lugosi (Bela Lugosi's son), after which Universal replaced Karloff's features with Glenn Strange's in most of their marketing. The New York Times mistakenly ran a photograph of Strange for Karloff's obituary.

Since Karloff's portrayal, the creature almost always appears as a towering, undead-like figure, often with a flat-topped angular head and bolts on his neck to serve as electrical connectors or grotesque electrodes. He wears a dark, usually tattered, suit having shortened coat sleeves and thick, heavy boots, causing him to walk with an awkward, stiff-legged gait (as opposed to the novel, in which he is described as much more flexible than a human). The tone of his skin varies (although shades of green or gray are common), and his body appears stitched together at certain parts (such as around the neck and joints). This image has influenced the creation of other fictional characters, such as the Hulk. [13]

In the 1965 Toho film Frankenstein Conquers the World, the heart of Frankenstein’s Monster was transported from Germany to Hiroshima as World War II neared its end, only to be irradiated during the atomic bombing of the city, granting it miraculous regenerative capabilities. Over the ensuing 20 years, it grows into a complete human child, who then rapidly matures into a giant, 20 metre-tall man. After escaping a laboratory in the city, he is blamed for the crimes of the burrowing Kaiju Baragon, and the two monsters face off in a showdown that ends with Frankenstein victorious, though he falls into the depths of the Earth after the ground collapses beneath his feet.

In the 1973 TV miniseries Frankenstein: The True Story, a different approach was taken in depicting the monster: Michael Sarrazin appears as a strikingly handsome man who later degenerates into a grotesque monster due to a flaw in the creation process.

In the 1994 film Mary Shelley's Frankenstein, the creature is played by Robert De Niro in a nearer approach to the original source, except this version gives the creature balding grey hair and a body covered in bloody stitches. He is, as in the novel, motivated by pain and loneliness. In this version, Frankenstein gives the monster the brain of his mentor, Doctor Waldman, while his body is made from a man who killed Waldman while resisting a vaccination. The monster retains Waldman's "trace memories" that apparently help him quickly learn to speak and read.

In the 2004 film Van Helsing, the monster is shown in a modernized version of the Karloff design. He is 8 to 9 feet (240–270 cm) tall, has a square bald head, gruesome scars, and pale green skin. The electricity is emphasized with one electrified dome in the back of his head and another over his heart. It also has hydraulic pistons in its legs, essentially rendering the design as a steam-punk cyborg. Although not as eloquent as in the novel, this version of the creature is intelligent and relatively nonviolent.

In 2004, a TV miniseries adaptation of Frankenstein was made by Hallmark. Luke Goss plays The Creature. This adaptation more closely resembles the monster as described in the novel: intelligent and articulate, with flowing, dark hair and watery eyes.

The 2005 film Frankenstein Reborn portrays the Creature as a paraplegic man who tries to regain the ability to walk by having a computer chip implanted. Instead, the surgeon kills him and resurrects his corpse as a reanimated zombie creature.

The 2014 TV series Penny Dreadful also rejects the Karloff design in favour of Shelley's description. This version of the creature has the flowing dark hair described by Shelley, although he departs from her description by having pale grey skin and obvious scars along the right side of his face. Additionally, he is of average height, being even shorter than other characters in the series. In this series, the monster names himself "Caliban", after the character in William Shakespeare's The Tempest. In the series, Victor Frankenstein makes a second and third creature, each more indistinguishable from normal human beings.


The Outsider: James Whale and FRANKENSTEIN

In 1818 author Mary Shelley created perhaps the most iconic fictional character in the history of literature in her novel Frankenstein também conhecido como Frankenstein or, The Modern Prometheus.

The monster is born and cruelly thrust into a world that is scary, confusing, unpredictable and even hostile making it instantly relatable to a young audience. I think this goes double for myself and other members of the LGBTQ+ community. Because we know what it’s like to be an outsider, we can relate to being scared of the angry, torch-bearing mob. Sadly, some of us know what it’s like to be beaten, literally cast out or worse because of who we are. It’s no shocker that easily the most recognizable and beloved adaptation of Shelley’s novel was created by an outsider himself, James Whale.

Whale grew up in Dudley, Worcestershire in poverty and, as a young adult James (or Jimmy as his friends called him) enlisted during World War I. After his brave service he set out to make a name for himself, at one point channeling his love of art into being a cartoonist. He sold a few cartoons but nothing panned out. In the early ‘20’s he started getting involved in stage productions, working tirelessly as stage builder, manager, actor and director. This hard work paid off when Whale was given the chance to direct a very small and virtually unknown at the time play called Journey’s End, a harrowing tale in the backdrop of World War I, something James was certainly familiar with. The play was a massive hit, so much so it took the young director all the way to the United States, where he was hired to direct it on Broadway. Happily, for Whale that too was a huge success. It seemed only natural to hire him to direct the 1930 film adaptation. James again hit paydirt, with the film bringing both critical praise and box-office bucks. Whale suddenly found himself a sought-after young director in Hollywood. He made one other film after Journey’s End, the woefully under-loved drama Waterloo Bridge (1931) but of course the director is best remembered for his horror films. After the big money maker that was Dracula (1931) Universal was hot to ride the wave and rushed Frankenstein (1931) into production.

Theater training had given Whale the tools he needed to fast track a film without sacrificing artistic vision. It’s hard to think of Frankenstein as scary or disturbing to modern eyes yet, Whale had pushed the limits of good taste by depicting things not really seen before, things such the exhumation of a corpse, brains in jars, a mad Doctor, a deranged assistant, a child murder not to mention a fetish-like whipping sequence. And, while it doesn’t “horrify” as the theatrical like warning at the beginning attests to, it’s a brilliant film none-the-less. Not only does it showcase excellent direction, great attention to detail and inventive and provocative camera work but Whale injects a dry and sardonic wit that gives the film a decided edge over the other Universal horror films that came before it and, besides his own, hasn’t been seen since. It goes without saying the film blew up at the box office and Universal scrambled for a sequel. At first James balked at the idea of doing a second Frankenstein film but, thankfully he was talked into doing it. On April 19th 1935 the bandages of Elsa Lancaster were slowly unwrapped. It’s soon revealed a lovely subtly stitched-up face, courtesy of the legendary makeup man Jack Pierce. Framing her face was a big, black fright wig with white streaks like lightning. She utters only a weird hiss (modeled after swans) followed by an animal like scream. Thus, a pop-culture-icon was born. It’s widely considered not only his best film but the crown jewel of the Universal Horror series.

The runaway success of Frankenstein e The Invisible Man (1933) gave Whale some clout when it came to directing Bride of Frankenstein (1935), which meant the director could take the sly humor of Frankenstein and amp it up to eleven. Despite the film butting heads with the newly enforced Production Code, the sequel somehow managed to be more outrageous than its predecessor while also hiding an early gay character in a major studio film. For example, Doctor Pretorius the flamboyant mad scientist played to perfection by Ernest Thesiger is not at all subtle in his queer coded performance. Some film historians have even suggested Whale may have even strongly hinted at a love triangle between Colin Clive’s Victor Frankenstein, Pretorius and Elizabeth (Valerie Hobson). Even with some controversy Bride of Frankenstein was a monster hit raking in two-million dollars (nearly twenty-million in today’s value) on a less than half a million-dollar budget. In the film Doctor Pretorius in a scene played for humor, tells Victor he’s been “booted out” of his position as at a University. Sadly, this line is more chilling in retrospect because, despite having a major hit on his hands Whale too would be booted out of Hollywood a mere six years later. His final film was a low budget affair aptly titled They Dare Not Love (1941). It’s long been thought that Whale, despite being a skilled director and a very commercial one at that, was drummed out of the art form he loved for being gay.

Universal horror was, let’s be honest bland and safe after Whale made his masterpiece in 1935 and then vanished from the genre like the Invisible Man. Though his career in Hollywood was brief he did make one hell of an impact. Frankenstein, The Old Dark House e Bride of Frankenstein are regarded by historians and fans alike as the best horror films of the Golden Age of Hollywood. If you want to see an excellent film about James Whale, I highly recommend 1998’s Gods and Monsters by director Bill Condon and starring Sir Ian McKellen as Whale. It’s a moving film that made a huge impact on me as a coming-of-age queer teen and also an avid horror film fan (especially older films) and still holds up for me today.

Prior to writing this I did a lot of soul-searching if you will pardon me sounding over-dramatic. Should I even write this? These are very strange times. It’s Pride Month, yet it feels somehow not right to celebrate amidst a global pandemic, a Country torn apart by racism, not to mention living under one of the harshest regimens on LGBTQ+ issues since Nixon. It’s also a rough time for the horror community as its going through its own MeToo movement in the aftermath of the CineState scandal. But I ultimately decided we need articles like this now probably more than ever. I think the real tragedy is James Whale for all of his talent, hard work and despite making untold millions (which continues to this day in video and merchandise), was never truly valued in Hollywood in his time. However, let us not end this article on a sad note. Instead let’s take the Monster by the hand and let’s raise a glass to that unsung hero of cinema, Jimmy Whale. Here’s to you and the countless hours of joy you’ve given to a lot of people over the years. “To a new world of Gods and Monsters”.

Michael Vaughn is a life time cinema fan. His work can be seen in magazines like Scream Magazine, Screem, Fangoria and has written for AMC/Shudder’s The Bite. Currently he has a book entitled The Ultimate Guide to Strange Cinema and a second book from BearManor due out next year.


Suicide And Doppelganger Motifs In Mary Shelley's Frankenstein

Destruction and suicide could be said to coincide with each other since the outcomes of both would be to destroy or kill one’s self. Shelley’s father said, “we do not think clearly during episodes of self-destructive anguish, we forget that the anguish may pass and that we may, in the future, enjoy periods of ‘tranquility and pleasure’” (Sanderson 51). His words came to life when Victor sets out to destroy the creature near the end of the novel. Victor, consumed with anger and guilt from the murders and deaths of his loved ones, destroys himself by pursuing the creature to the Arctic Circle and never got to exact revenge on the creature. However, if Victor did succeed by destroying the creature, his creation, he would have destroyed a part of himself along with it.&hellip


Writing Inspiration (Even During Quarantine)

I don’t know about you, dear writer, but coming to terms with quarantine has been a challenge for me. Yes, I had extra time at home for the crucible of creativity, but not without a steep learning curve. Writing inspiration has been hard to come by.

During quarantine, my family pushed pause on activities and the daily grind. We found some comfort in the slower pace of life, dealing with the negative impact as best as we could. As many parts of the world begin reopening, let’s not forget the writing we have accomplished so far.

As always, I am inspired by history. There have been other pandemics, and great works have come from them.

Historical figures can inspire us with their great pandemic creations.

Sir Isaac Newton left Cambridge college when an outbreak of the Plague closed all schools. His year of uninterrupted self-study and exploration led him to write his theories on early calculus, on optics as he played with prisms at home, and of course, on gravity.

William Shakespeare wrote some of his best poems and plays when the plague forced a closure of London’s theatres. According to Scientific American, "plague was a near-constant presence in the England of Elizabeth I and her successor, James I. When the death toll exceeded 30 per week, London’s theatres were ordered to close, forcing theatrical troupes to take a break or perform in the country. When a particularly nasty outbreak struck in 1606, Shakespeare used his time well, penning King Lear, Macbeth e Antônio e Cleópatra."

Edvard Munch, famous expressionist painter of The Scream, painted during the time of the Spanish Flu. Having contracted the disease himself, he recovered to create many more works.

Bram Stoker wrote Dracula in 1897, inspiring over a century of gothic writing. That same year, “The 1897 Epidemic Diseases Act” was put into place and Stoker’s native Ireland suffered high numbers of typhoid fever and the lingering Bubonic Plague.

Mary Shelley began writing Frankenstein during a failed vacation with writer friends. It was 1817, and a volcanic explosion of Mt. Tambora had caused an endless winter throughout the world. The atmosphere was choked with ash and dust, keeping essential sunlight from crops and leading to famine, epidemics, and a cholera pandemic. Mary’s personal life suffered as well when her poet husband, Percy, drowned in an accident five years later. Her friend, Lord Byron, died of a fever two years after that.

The earth in 1817 was literally dark, cold and uninviting, but was fertile for writing the first science fiction novel. One thing is for sure: centuries later, Frankenstein lives on, evoking philosophical debate.

Pensamentos finais

The hurdles of 2020 are undeniable but perhaps framing your ideas in literature can provide solutions. As society adjusts to the coronavirus outbreak, our stories, our insights, our projects can help bring hope and healing. Even if it isn't Dracula ou Frankenstein, every story matters. Yours might just be the one that helps a reader hang on while they wait for the world to right itself.

How has the pandemic of 2020 affected your writing so far? Do you know of other historical figures who took solace in creativity during a world emergency? Please share their story down in the comments!

About Kris

Kris Maze has worked in education for 25 years and writes for various publications including Practical Advice for Teachers of Heritage Learners of Spanish e Writers in the Storm. Her first YA Science fiction book, IMPACT, arrives in June 2020 and is published through Aurelia Leo.

A recovering grammarian and hopeless wanderer, Kris enjoys reading, playing violin and piano, and spending time outdoors with her family. She also ponders the wisdom of Bob Ross.

Set in post-pandemic Wind City, a young journalist races time as an incoming asteroid with certain destruction. Nala Nightingale must decide between broadcasting the news of a lifetime or discovering keys to her orphaned past.

Trapped underground with a mysterious scientist named Edison and his chess master AI, can Nala Nightingale find the will to live and to love in a dystopian future?

To find out more about IMPACT, click here.


My hideous progeny

And now, once again, I bid my hideous progeny go forth and prosper. I have an affection for it, for it was the offspring of happy days, when death and grief were but words, which found no true echo in my heart.

Its several pages speak of many a walk, many a drive, and many a conversation, when I was not alone and my companion was one who, in this world, I shall never see more. But this is for myself my readers have nothing to do with these associations.

I will add but one word as to the alterations I have made. They are principally those of style. I have changed no portion of the story, nor introduced any new ideas or circumstances.

I have mended the language where it was so bald as to interfere with the interest of the narrative and these changes occur almost exclusively in the beginning of the first volume. Throughout they are entirely confined to such parts as are mere adjuncts to the story, leaving the core and substance of it untouched.

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Assista o vídeo: FRANKENSTEIN DAY OF THE BEAST (Janeiro 2022).